Glossary
A
Access key (Windows)
A key that activates a menu, menu item, or control when used with the ALT key. In Windows, this key corresponds to the underlined letter on a menu, command, or dialog box option.
Access privileges
Permission to view and work with certain records, fields, layouts, value lists, and scripts and to perform selected activities in a file.
Account
A username and (usually) password that accesses a file with a defined level of privileges. There are two pre-defined accounts: Admin and Guest. Admin is a Full Access account that can be renamed or deleted. At least one Full Access account that is authenticated via FileMaker must be defined for each database file. Guest account is a special account that cannot be renamed or deleted, but can be made active or inactive.
ActiveX Automation
A Windows programming and scripting protocol that allows external control of specific commands and actions in FileMaker Pro, including opening and closing FileMaker Pro databases, toggling the application's visibility, and performing FileMaker Pro scripts.
API (Application Programming Interface)
A set of software application building blocks, such as data structures, variables, procedures, and functions, used by programmers.
AppleScript
A scripting language you can use to control functions of the Mac OS and of applications that support AppleScript (often called scriptable applications).
Apple events
A Mac OS technology that lets applications communicate with one another. FileMaker Pro can send and receive Apple events to and from applications that support them.
Ascending sort order
Alphabetical sequence (A to Z) for words, lowest to highest order for numbers, and earliest to latest for dates and times.
ASCII character set
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard character set used by computer systems worldwide (often extended for different alphabets).
Authentication
The process of checking the validity of an account and password (if one is defined) before assigning privileges and allowing access to a system or a database file. An account authenticated via FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Server is referred to as a FileMaker Account. (FileMaker Server can also authenticate an account via External Server -- an external authentication system such as Apple Open Directory, or a Windows Domain.)
Auxiliary files
In a FileMaker Pro Advanced runtime solution, files that are bundled with a primary file.
B
Binding key
In FileMaker Pro Advanced, a case-sensitive key between 1 and 24 characters long that links the components of a runtime solution.
Blank layout
A predefined layout that contains empty body, header, and footer parts.
Body part
A layout part that contains individual records from a database file.
Book
In the status toolbar, the navigation control for moving from one record to another in Browse mode, from one layout to another in Layout mode, from one request to another in Find mode, and from one page to another in Preview mode.
If you don't see the status toolbar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Boolean value
A Boolean value is either True or False. A field containing any number except zero evaluates as True. A field containing zero, no data, or content that does not resolve into a number evaluates as False. For example, a field containing “ABC,” “ABC0,” or an empty field is False. A field containing “1” or “ABC2” is True.
Break field
In a subsummary part, records are grouped (sorted) by values in another field, called the break field. Whenever the value of the break field changes, the report "breaks" and FileMaker Pro inserts the subsummary part.
Browse mode
The FileMaker mode in which you enter and edit information in fields. Groups of fields make up the records of your database. You can either view one record at a time (click Form View in the layout bar), or view your records in a list (click List View), or view records arranged in a spreadsheet-like table (click Table View).
(Use Browse mode to enter and edit your information; use Layout mode to design how your information is displayed. Use Find mode to find records that match search criteria; use Preview mode to display how your records will print.)
Button
Any layout object (a 3-D rectangle with a text label if created by the Button tool) that performs a specified script in Browse or Find modes.
C
Cache
The amount of memory assigned to FileMaker Pro. A larger cache size increases performance. A smaller cache size saves data to the hard disk more frequently, offering greater protection in case of a system crash.
Calculation field
A field that returns the result of a calculation of values. You can create a formula for the calculation using functions, constants, operators, and information from other fields in the same record.
Cascading style sheets
A system of codes or tags that define how a web browser displays information in a web page. Cascading style sheets provide more control over the layout and appearance of web pages than HTML. Cascading style sheets work like templates for web pages. If a web page contains cascading style sheets, users must view it in a browser that supports cascading style sheets.
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
The specification for communication between an HTTP server and server gateway programs, which is supported by most servers.
Character encoding
The character set or code page of a file. If necessary, you can specify a character set to be used when importing, exporting, indexing, sorting, and spell-checking files. FileMaker supports ASCII, Windows ANSI, Macintosh, Japanese (Shift-JIS), Unicode UTF-8, Unicode UTF-16, and Unicode UTF-16 Windows.
Client
A user that opens a database file that is shared on a network, published in a browser, or shared via ODBC/JDBC. FileMaker Network settings and privileges determine how clients interact with databases hosted through FileMaker Pro, FileMaker Server, and FileMaker Server Advanced.
Client application
The application that requests data (using SQL) from a data source (using ODBC or JDBC). Also, FileMaker Pro is a client application when it accesses a database hosted by FileMaker Server.
Client/server architecture
The relationship between two networked computers that share resources. The client requests services from the server, and the server provides services to the client.
Clipboard
A temporary storage area in computer memory where FileMaker Pro places the most recent selection you've cut or copied.
Clone
A copy of a FileMaker Pro file that contains all the field definitions, tables, layouts, scripts, and page setup options, but none of the data.
Column
When a database file is viewed as a table, a column corresponds to a field.
Combo box
A type of drop-down list you can set up in Layout mode. In the Field/Control Setup dialog box, select Include arrow to show and hide list. The list will only drop when users click the arrow, not when they enter the field.
Commit
To save changes to a database file. Certain actions such as navigating between records, finding, and sorting do not change the file’s modification date. Other actions, such as changing data in a record or changing a layout do change the file’s modification date.
Consistency check
A consistency check examines a file that may have been damaged due to, for example, an unexpected quit. FileMaker Pro reads every file block and verifies that the internal structure of the block is valid and the block is properly linked to other blocks in the file. (A consistency check does not read all the data within each file block or check the schema or higher-level structures in the file; these tasks are performed by file recovery.)
Constant
In a formula, an unchanging value. For example, a constant can be a field name, a text literal ("Total:"), or a number. The value of the constant doesn't change from record to record as the formula is evaluated. Text constants in formulas can be up to 253 characters long.
Container data type
Pictures, sounds, QuickTime movies, OLE objects (Windows), and files of any type can be inserted in a container field.
Context
The starting point or perspective from which calculations and scripts are begun, and from which a relationship is evaluated in the relationships graph.
Convert
Opening a data file from another application, which creates a new FileMaker Pro file containing the data.
Also refers to opening a file created with a previous version of FileMaker Pro.
Custom function
A function that is not one of the default FileMaker Pro functions. In FileMaker Pro Advanced, you can create custom functions that can be reused anywhere in the database.
Custom menu
A menu that is not one of the default FileMaker Pro menus. In FileMaker Pro Advanced, you can create custom menus, menu items, and menu sets.
D
Data Entry Only privilege set
One of the three pre-defined privilege sets that appear in every file. The Data Entry Only privilege set allows read/write access to the records in a file, but not design access (for example, the ability to create layouts and value lists).
Data source
A named reference that provides access to another FileMaker database file or to an ODBC database. ODBC data sources are also referred to as external SQL sources (ESS).
Data source name (DSN)
A data structure that contains the information about a specific database that an ODBC driver needs in order to connect to it.
Data Viewer
A FileMaker Pro Advanced feature that lets you monitor expressions such as field values, local and global variables, and calculations. You can monitor expressions while running scripts or while testing them in the Script Debugger. You can also monitor field values and variables in the database file.
Database Design Report
A FileMaker Pro Advanced tool that creates a report of your database schema.
Database file
A collection of information in a file containing one or more tables pertaining to a subject, such as customers or invoices. (A large database can also comprise many database files.)
Database Management System (DBMS)
An application that allows users to store, process, and retrieve information in a database.
Descending sort order
Reverse alphabetical sequence (Z to A) for words, highest to lowest order for numbers, and latest to earliest dates and times.
Developer Utilities
A FileMaker Pro Advanced feature that lets you bind files into a runtime solution, display files in Kiosk mode, prevent users from modifying the design or structure of databases, and automatically rename sets of files and update links to related files.
Domain name
The primary subdivision of internet addresses, which is indicated by the last part of an internet address after the final period (or dot). In the United States, the standard domains are .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .org, and .net. In other countries, the top-level domain is usually the country domain.
Domain name server (DNS)
A server that matches up the URL of a website (for example http://www.filemaker.com) with its proper numeric IP address (for example 12.34.56.78).
Driver
The ODBC or JDBC driver translates SQL queries into commands that a DBMS can understand. It processes ODBC/JDBC calls, submits SQL requests to the data source, and returns the data back to the driver manager, which then routes it to the requesting application (for example, FileMaker Pro).
Driver manager
The control panel that manages communication between requesting applications and data sources. When an application makes a request via ODBC/JDBC, the driver manager routes the request through the correct driver to the correct data source and returns the data to the requesting application. All ODBC/JDBC drivers and data sources to be used on that computer are registered with the driver manager.
Drop-down calendar
A field set up to display an interactive monthly calendar when a user enters the field in Browse or Find mode.
DTD (Document Type Definition)
A formal description of a particular type of XML. It defines a document structure, including the names of data elements and where they may occur within the structure. Valid XML conforms to the rules established in its DTD. XML parsers (such as Xerces) can check the validity of XML to its DTD.
E
Email
Electronic mail. A system for transmitting messages from one computer or terminal to another. A message sent from one computer user to another is stored in the recipient’s account mailbox until that person logs onto the system and reads the message.
Envelope layout
A predefined layout with fields arranged for printing on standard business envelopes.
Ethernet
A type of fast local area network used for connecting computers and peripherals within the same building or campus.
EXIF (Exchangeable image file)
A standardized digital camera format for including additional data with each photo, such as the date and time the photo was created, aperture, shutter speed, and other information about each photo.
Export
To save data from one file so that it can be used in another file or in another application.
Expression
A value or any computation that produces a value. Expressions can contain functions, field values, and constants and can be combined to produce other expressions.
Extended privilege
Data sharing permissions that determine if a privilege set allows users to open a shared file using FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Server (fmapp), view a database as an ODBC or JDBC data source (fmxdbc), or view a database using a web browser via Instant Web Publishing (fmiwp), XML web publishing (fmxml), XSLT web publishing (fmxslt), FileMaker Mobile (fmmobile), or PHP web publishing (fmphp). Plug-ins from third-party developers may provide additional extended privileges.
External function
A function written in C or C++ as part of a third party plug-in that extends the feature set of FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Pro Advanced.
External script
A script used by a database file, but defined in a different database file. Use the Perform Script script step to select a defined script from a related file, or to select a file reference to a database file on your hard drive or network.
F
Field
The basic unit of data in a record. You define a field to hold a specific, discrete category of data, such as Last Name, Employee Photo, or to display the result of a calculation. You can define text, number, date, time, timestamp, container, calculation, and summary fields. Field can also refer to the object on a layout that displays the data, such as an edit box, checkbox set, or pop-up menu.
Field boundary
In Layout mode, an outline that shows the size of a field. To see field boundaries, choose View menu > Show > Field Boundaries. You can specify in Layout mode that field boundaries appear in other database modes by choosing Format menu > Field Borders. (In Browse mode and Find mode, when you make a field active by clicking in it, you see the field boundary whether or not you specify borders.)
Field label
Text on a layout that identifies a field. When you place a field on a layout, you can have FileMaker Pro add a field label that matches the field name. You can change or delete this field label if you want.
Field name
The name you assign to a field when you define the field. When you place a field onto a layout, you can have FileMaker Pro also place an editable field label that matches the field name.
Field type
The part of a field definition that determines what kind of data you can enter in the field and the kinds of operations FileMaker Pro can perform with the data. FileMaker Pro can create text, number, date, time, timestamp, container, calculation, and summary fields. (Global fields contain the same value for all records in the database and can be of any type except summary.)
File path
The location of a file in an operating system as identified by the drive, folders, filename, and file extension.
FileMaker Network
A communications method built into FileMaker Pro that allows you to share FileMaker Pro files hosted by FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Server with others over a network. The FileMaker Network settings and privileges you set up determine how other users (called "clients") can open and use the shared file.
Find mode
The FileMaker mode in which you specify criteria for finding a subset of records.
(Use Browse mode to enter and edit your information; use Layout mode to design how your information is displayed. Use Find mode to find records that match search criteria; use Preview mode to display how your records will print.)
Find request
In Find mode, a blank form based on the current layout. Enter search criteria into one or more fields of the find request.
Firewall
A security system used to prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to a LAN. A firewall usually has a single computer that is connected to the internet and all internet traffic must pass through that computer.
Footer part
Use the footer part for page numbers or dates. This part appears at the bottom of every screen or page (unless you add a Title Footer). You can have only one footer in a layout. A field in the footer displays data from the last record on that page.
Form View
Displays one record at a time. Fields appear on separate lines, with the field label on the left and the field data on the right. To select this view, click Form View in the layout bar.
If you don't see the layout bar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Formatting bar
In Layout and Browse mode, the area that displays options for formatting text and objects. To show or hide the formatting bar, click Formatting in the layout bar.
If you don't see the layout bar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Formula
A set of instructions that FileMaker Pro follows to calculate a value used in a field or as the criteria for matching database records.
Found set
The set of records in a table that are made active by a find request. When you find all records, the found set is the entire table.
Full Access privilege set
One of the three pre-defined privilege sets that appear in every file. The Full Access privilege set allows complete read/write access to a file, including making changes to privileges for the file.
Fully qualified name
The complete name of a field or layout, expressed using the format tableName::[field or layout name], where “tableName” is the name of the underlying table occurrence in the relationships graph upon which the field or layout is based. A fully qualified name identifies an exact instance of a field or layout. Because fields and layouts with common names can be based on different tables, FileMaker Pro uses fully qualified names to avoid errors in calculations and scripts.
Function
A predefined, named formula that performs a specific calculation and returns a single, specific value.
Function list separator
The punctuation character (a semicolon) that separates parameters in a function definition. If you type a comma, FileMaker Pro automatically changes it to a semicolon after you close the Specify Calculation dialog box.
G
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
A platform-independent file format often used to distribute graphics on the internet.
Global field
A field defined with the global storage option can contain one value that's used for all records in a file. Use the value of a global field as a fixed value in calculations, to declare variables in If or Loop script steps, or for fields that rarely need to be updated (for example, a company logo in a container field). A global field can be any field type except summary. A global field can’t be indexed.
Global variable
A global variable can be used in a calculation or script anywhere in a file, for example, other scripts or file path. The value of a global variable is not cleared until the file is closed.
Grammar
A precise description of a formal language, such as XML, consisting of sets of rules for how strings (words) in the language can be generated, and how the strings can be recognized as part of the language.
Grand summary
Total or other aggregate value for all records in the found set.
Grand summary part
Use grand summary parts to view and display summary information (totals, averages, and so on) in summary fields for all records in the found set. You can add one grand summary part at the top (leading) and one grand summary part at the bottom (trailing) of a layout.
Grouped object
A collection of objects that behaves as one object in Layout mode.
Guest
A user who opens a protected file without specifying an account name and password. The Guest account is assigned a privilege set that determines what guests can do in the file. Guest access may be disabled for a file.
H
Handle
One of the small squares at the corners of a selected object used to resize and reshape the object.
Header part
Use a header part for column headings, titles, and other information that appears only at the top of every page on a layout. FileMaker Pro displays the header in Browse mode and prints it on every page, except the first page if you add a title header. Fields added to a header are printed on every page, using data from the first record on that page.
Homepage
The starting page for a website. It often has some form of a table of contents that allows viewers to link to other parts of the website.
Host
After a file has been opened and enabled for sharing, the host is either the first FileMaker Pro user to share the file, or the host is FileMaker Server. Once the host opens the file, other users (clients) can access and change the file. All changes are stored in the file on the hard disk where the file resides. FileMaker Network settings and privileges determine how FileMaker Pro clients interact with databases hosted through FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Server.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
A language that is used for displaying and accessing information on the World Wide Web.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The internet protocol that defines how a web server responds to requests for files.
I
Import
To bring (copy) data from a table, another file, or another application into the current table. You can also import scripts from one FileMaker Pro file into another.
Indexing
An option that can be enabled when defining (or changing) the definition of a field. When indexing is enabled, FileMaker Pro builds a list of all the values that occur in the field in the table. This improves the performance of tasks such as finding data, but it increases the size of the database file on disk.
Instant Web Publishing
A method of sharing your FileMaker databases with other users via a web browser. Web clients are limited to the layouts that you provide and to the privilege sets assigned to their user accounts.
To access your database on the web, clients must have the fmiwp extended privilege.
To publish your database on the web, you must have an internet connection (usually provided through an internet service provider) and an IP address.
Internet
An international network of many other networks that are linked using the TCP/IP network protocol.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
The company from which you purchase your connection to the internet.
Intranet
A private TCP/IP network of linked computers within a company or organization.
IP (Internet Protocol) address
For IPv4, a four-part number, usually formatted as 12.34.56.78, that uniquely identifies a computer on the internet; for IPv6, an eight-part number, usually formatted as [2001:0DB8:85A3:08D3:1319:8A2E:0370:7334], that uniquely identifies a computer on the internet. When referenced in an application, IPv6 addresses must be contained in square brackets, for example, [2001:0DB8:85A3:08D3:1319:8A2E:0370:7334].
J, K
JDBC
A Java API that uses SQL statements to access data from, and exchange data with, many database management systems. The JDBC driver communicates between your Java applet and the FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Server Advanced data source.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
A platform-independent file format often used to distribute graphics on the internet.
Key
A column (or columns) that makes a particular row unique (corresponds to a match field).
Kiosk
A FileMaker database that runs full screen, without toolbars or menus. Users click buttons to navigate. In FileMaker Pro Advanced, use the Developer Utilities to create Kiosk solutions. You can bind Kiosk solutions into stand-alone runtime solutions.
L
Labels layout
A predefined layout with fields arranged for printing on mailing label stock, and media and index sheets.
LAN (local area network)
A connection between computers within a location using cable or a wireless system.
Layout
An arrangement of fields, objects, pictures, and layout parts that represents the way information is organized and presented when you browse, preview, or print records. You can design different layouts for entering data, printing reports and mailing labels, displaying web pages, and so on.
Layout bar
In the status toolbar, the area that displays options for working with layouts, such as the Layout pop-up menu.
If you don't see the layout bar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Layout mode
The FileMaker mode in which you determine how information in fields is presented on the screen and in printed reports.
(Use Browse mode to enter and edit your information; use Layout mode to design how your information is displayed. Use Find mode to find records that match search criteria; use Preview mode to display how your records will print.)
Layout part
A section of a layout that organizes or summarizes information. Layout parts include Body, Header, Footer, Title Header, Title Footer, leading and trailing Grand Summary, and leading and trailing Subsummary.
Layout pop-up menu
In the layout bar, a pop-up menu from which you can choose Manage Layouts (Layout mode) or a defined layout (all modes).
If you don't see the layout bar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Layout theme
The appearance of an onscreen or printed report. You can choose a theme when you use the New Layout/Report assistant.
Layout tools
In the status toolbar in Layout mode, a collection of tools that includes the Selection tool (pointer), Text tool, Line tool, Rectangle tool, Rounded Rectangle tool, Oval tool, Field/Control tool, Button tool, Tab Control tool, Portal tool, Web Viewer tool, Field tool, Part tool, and Format Painter tool.
If you don't see the status toolbar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Layout types
FileMaker Pro includes six predefined layout types: Standard Form, List/Report, Table View, Labels, Envelope, and Blank layout. You can use the predefined layout types as they are, or change them to suit your needs.
To use a predefined layout type, in Layout mode, click New Layout/Report in the status toolbar. The assistant guides you through creating the type of layout or report you want. To change the layout, use the tools and commands in Layout mode to tailor the layout for your needs.
LDAP (lightweight directory access protocol)
A protocol for accessing online directory services.
Link
On a web page, text or a graphic which -- when you click it -- displays an associated web page or a specific element within a page.
Also, the HTML code that creates a link to another web page or to a specific element within a page.
In OLE, a connection to an object.
List/Report layout
A predefined layout type for setting up simple reports (columnar or extended columnar) or complex reports with grouped data (subsummary reports). The fields that you specify appear in columns across the screen or page in one line. Field names are in the header part and the footer part is blank.
List View
Displays records one record at a time in a list format. To select this view, click List View in the layout bar.
If you don't see the layout bar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Locked object
An object on a layout that cannot be edited or deleted. To lock or unlock an object, select it in Layout mode, then choose Lock or Unlock in the Arrange palette. If an object is locked, its selection handles dim.
If you don’t see the Arrange palette, click Arrange in the layout bar.
Lookup
A lookup matches records and copies data from a related table into a field in the current table. After data is copied, it becomes part of the current table (as well as existing in the table it was copied from). Data copied to a table doesn't automatically change when the values in the related table change.
Lookup target field
The field that you want data copied to during a lookup.
Lookup source field
The field in the related table that contains the data you want copied during a lookup.
M
Many-to-many relationship
A correspondence between data in database tables in which more than one record in the first table is related to more than one record in another table, and more than one record in that table is related to more than one record in the first table.
Match field
For relational databases and lookups, a field in a source table and a field in a related table that contain values you want to use to find matching records. (A match field is sometimes called a key field or trigger field.) In the relationships graph, match fields appear in italics.
For importing records, values in the match fields determine which records in the source table update which records in the target table.
Menu
A list of menu items. Each menu has a title that appears on the menu bar.
Menu bar
The area at the top of the screen (Mac OS) or window (Windows) that displays the installed menu set.
Menu item
One item listed in a menu on the menu bar. A menu item corresponds with one command, submenu, or separator.
Menu item properties
All the settings for a menu item, including platform, display title, shortcut, and action.
Menu set
The collection of menus that installs on the menu bar.
Merge field
A placeholder on a layout for the contents of a database field. A merge field expands or contracts in Browse and Preview modes, or when printed, to fit the amount of data in the database field for each record.
Merge fields are useful for mail merge form letters; FileMaker Pro uses merge fields in predefined Labels and Envelope layouts.
Mode
In FileMaker Pro, the four different environments (Browse, Find, Layout, and Preview) that you use to work with your database file.
Mode pop-up menu
A pop-up menu at the bottom of the document window from which you can choose a mode (Browse, Find, Layout, or Preview). This menu is available in all modes.
Multi-key field
A match field that contains more than one value, each on a separate line. A multi-key field can be used in one table involved in a relationship, to match several possible values in the match field of the other table.
Multimedia
Files that combine media, like text, graphics, sound, animation, and video.
N
Network protocol
A network protocol (for example, TCP/IP) is a set of rules that govern how computers exchange messages on a network.
New Layout/Report assistant
A wizard that guides you through creating a layout or report according to options you choose. In Layout mode, click New Layout/Report in the status toolbar, or choose Layouts menu > New Layout/Report.
O
Object
On a FileMaker Pro layout, an object is a discrete entity or shape that you can select, move, modify, delete, or name. Lines, fields, buttons, portals, imported graphics, blocks of text, tab controls, and web viewers are objects.
Object effect
Gives objects in layouts a 3-dimensional appearance. To apply an object effect, click Object Effects in the formatting bar, then choose Embossed, Engraved, or Drop Shadow. To remove an object effect, choose None.
Object Grids
An invisible snap-to grid that aligns objects you create or move.
ODBC
An API that uses SQL statements to access data from, and exchange data with, many database management systems. FileMaker Pro uses ODBC drivers to share data (as a data source) and to interact with data from other applications (as a client application).
OLE client
A document that includes an object linked from another document via OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) or that includes an embedded OLE object.
OLE object
Information from another application that you can include in a FileMaker Pro file. You work with OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) objects -- like graphics, spreadsheets, sounds, or text -- in container fields or layouts in FileMaker Pro files.
1-away relationship
A correspondence between database tables in which two tables are directly related to each other, with no other tables between them.
One-to-many relationship
A correspondence between data in database tables in which one record in the first table is related to more than one record in another table.
One-to-one relationship
A correspondence between data in database tables in which one record in the first table is related to one record in another table.
Operands
Components of a formula. For example, in the formula Quantity*Price, Quantity and Price are the operands.
Operators
In calculations, symbols that indicate how to combine two or more expressions. These include the standard arithmetic operators (+, -, /, *), logical operators that set up conditions that must be met to make a value True or False (AND, OR, XOR, and NOT), and find operators (<, =, @) that help you limit the records defined in a find request.
In the relationships graph, symbols that define the match criteria between one or more pairs of fields in two tables. These include: != (not equal), > (greater than), < (less than), = (equal), <= (less than or equal to), >= (greater than or equal to) and x (all rows, or cartesian product).
P
Parent script
A script that defines script parameters and can call other scripts.
Part label
In Layout mode, the label that appears at the left or side of the bottom dividing line of each layout part. By dragging it up or down, you can use the part label to resize a part. You can also open the Part Definitions dialog box by double-clicking the label.
PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor)
An open-source programming language primarily used in server-side application software to create dynamic web pages. FileMaker Server lets you publish data from FileMaker Pro databases on customized web pages created with PHP.
Plug-in
Software that extends the capabilities of an application in a specific way.
Port
A pre-assigned number that indicates a "logical connection place" where a client (such as a web browser) can connect to a particular server application on a networked computer. Port numbers range from 0 to 65536. Port 80 is the default port for HTTP services such as FileMaker Pro web publishing, but you can use another port number if 80 is already in use by another server application.
Portal
For relational databases, a layout object in one table where you place one or more related fields to display in rows the data from one or more related records.
Preview mode
The FileMaker mode in which you see how layouts will look when they're printed.
(Use Browse mode to enter and edit your information; use Layout mode to design how your information is displayed. Use Find mode to find records that match search criteria; use Preview mode to display how your records will print.)
Primary file
In a FileMaker Pro Advanced runtime solution, the file that connects all of the auxiliary files and opens when you start the runtime application. From the Developer Utilities in FileMaker Pro Advanced, you can select a primary file for solutions that have more than one file.
Privilege set
A defined set of permissions that determines a level of access to a database file. You can define as many privilege sets as you like for a file. There are three pre-defined privilege sets: Full Access, Data Entry Only, and Read-Only Access.
Q
Query
Retrieving, manipulating, or modifying data from a data source by sending SQL statements. Also, requesting, and then receiving, data from a DBMS. You can also add, edit, format, sort, and perform calculations on your data using queries.
QuickTime
An application from Apple Computer, Inc. that compresses, stores, and plays files combining text, sound, animation, and video.
QuickTime VR
A type of QuickTime movie. QuickTime VR movies let you view panoramic images or objects from many angles.
R
Read-Only Access privilege set
One of the three pre-defined privilege sets that appear in every file. The Read-Only Access privilege set allows read access to the records in a file, but not write or design access.
Record
One set of fields in a database table. Each record contains data about a single activity, individual, subject, or transaction.
Recover
If a file is damaged (for example, from an unexpected quit during a hard-drive update), you can attempt to recover the file. FileMaker Pro preserves as much data (the file’s schema and structure and its tables, records, layouts, scripts, and field definitions) as possible.
Recursive script
A script that calls itself.
Related field
For relational databases, a field in one table that is related to a field in another table (or to a different field within the same table). If a relationship is defined between two tables (even through another table), data in fields in one table can be accessed from the other table.
Related record
A record in the related table whose match field (according to the relationship used) contains a value that's equal to the value in the match field of another table.
Related table
For relational databases, the table that contains the data you want to access and work with in the current table. For lookups, the table that contains the data to copy.
Relational database
A group of one or more database files that, when used together, contain all the data you need. Each occurrence of data is stored in only one table at a time, but can be accessed in any table, either in the same file or from a related file. Data from another table or file is displayed in the current table without being copied, and the data changes whenever the values in the other table or file change.
Relationship
Relationships provide access to data from one table to another. Relationships can join one record in one table to one record in another table, one record to many other records, or all records in one table to all records in another table, depending on the criteria you specify when you create the relationship in the relationships graph.
Relationships graph
In the Relationships tab of the Manage Database dialog box, you can see the occurrences of tables both in the current file and from any external, related database files. In this relationships graph, you join tables and change relationships between fields in different tables.
When you create a new table, a visual representation, or occurrence, of the table appears in the relationships graph. You can specify multiple occurrences (with unique names) of the same table in order to work with complex relationships in the graph.
Repeating field
A field containing multiple, separate values.
Report with grouped data
A subsummary report that you create using the List/Report layout type. Reports with grouped data can include totals and subtotals.
Row
When a database file is viewed as a table, a row corresponds to a record.
Runtime solution
A database that does not require FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Pro Advanced in order to be used. In FileMaker Pro Advanced, use the Developer Utilities to bind a primary file and any auxiliary files to produce a stand-alone runtime solution.
S
Schema
In database terminology, a schema is the organization of the tables, the fields in each table, and the relationships between fields and tables.
Script
One or more instructions (script steps) that you define to automate repetitive or difficult tasks. You manage scripts using the Manage Scripts feature. You run a script by clicking its button, choosing its menu command, calling it from another script or a plug-in, or running it at startup or when a file closes.
Script Debugger
A FileMaker Pro Advanced tool for debugging FileMaker Pro scripts.
Script step
A command that you include in a script.
Script trigger
A mechanism that causes a specified script to run when a particular event occurs.
Search criteria
In Find mode, the values and operators you specify to locate records. For example, if you type ABC Travel in the Vendor field, FileMaker Pro looks for and returns all records that have this name in the Vendor field.
Self-join
A relationship between fields in the same table. This creates another occurrence of the table in the relationships graph.
Separator
A line within a menu that separates or groups menu items.
Serial number
A unique number entered by FileMaker Pro for each record. You can tell FileMaker Pro to automatically enter a serial number for each record by setting the Auto-Enter options in the Options for Field dialog box. You can also serialize records in Browse mode by choosing Records menu > Replace Field Contents.
Shared database
A database file for which sharing has been enabled, which permits users to access the database file over a network. FileMaker Pro, FileMaker Pro Advanced, FileMaker Server, and FileMaker Server Advanced each support one or more of the following ways to share databases: FileMaker Network sharing, which permits multiple FileMaker Pro users to use a database file simultaneously; web publishing of databases to web browser users; and sharing of data with other applications via ODBC/JDBC.
Shortcut
Also known as keyboard shortcut. One or more keys that users can press to perform tasks.
Shortcut menu
Use to edit objects or data quickly by choosing commands from a shortcut, or context, menu. Commands vary depending on the mode you're using, the item the cursor is over, and whether an item is selected.
To display a shortcut menu, Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) the item.
Slider
In the status toolbar, the navigation control for quickly moving to a record in your database file based on its location in the file. For example, in Browse mode, move the slider to the left to go to the first record and to the right to go to the last record.
In Browse mode, moving the slider changes the current record. In Find mode, moving the slider changes the current find request. In Layout mode, moving the slider changes the current layout. In Preview mode, moving the slider changes the current page.
Sliding objects
Objects that move together to close gaps left by entries in adjacent fields.
Set sliding in Layout mode (choose Format menu > Sliding/Printing).
Solution
A database file or files.
Sort order
The sequence for rearranging records. Records are sorted by the first field in the sort order list, then the second, and so on. Values within each field are sorted by the order specified (ascending, descending, or custom).
Source file
The file from which you bring data during importing or exporting, or the file from which you add a table to the relationships graph.
Source table
The table upon which one or more tables in the relationships graph are based. The source table is the table defined in the Tables tab of the Manage Database dialog box.
SQL
A structured programming query language that controls and interacts with a DBMS.
Stacking order
The order in which objects overlap on a layout. In Layout mode, you can change this order by cutting and pasting objects or by clicking Bring to Front, Bring Forward, Send to Back, or Send Backward in the Arrange palette.
If you don’t see the Arrange palette, click Arrange in the layout bar.
Standard Form layout
The default layout, with all fields arranged on separate lines in the order they were defined. The body part is only as tall as it needs to be to include all the fields in the database. This layout includes header and footer parts.
Startup script
A script that automatically runs when a file is opened. You can script such things as setting system formats to the user's formats or setting a database to be shared in a startup script.
You specify a startup script in the File Options dialog box.
Status toolbar
The area across the top of the document window that displays navigation controls, customizable buttons, and a layout bar for working with layouts. In Layout mode, it includes layout tools.
If you don't see the status toolbar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
Structure
In FileMaker Pro, the organization of file elements such as scripts, layouts, value lists, privileges, and so on. You interact with a file’s schema through its structure.
Submenu
A menu that extends from another menu item.
Sub-script
A script that is called from another script.
Subsummary parts
Use summary parts to view and display information from one or more records. You place a summary field in a summary part to display a summary of information for each group of records sorted on the break field. You can add one or more subsummaries above (leading) or below (trailing) the body.
Subsummary value
Aggregate values for different categories of data within a field. For example, a subsummary value can be the total of employees for each department.
Summary field
A field that contains the result of a summary calculation of values across a group of records.
Supplemental field
A FileMaker calculation field or summary field that you can append to ODBC tables in order to do calculations on the external data while working in FileMaker. The calculations are not stored and you are not changing the schema of the ODBC table.
System formats
Settings you control with control panels to determine how dates, times, currency, and numbers display and sort on your computer. (See the documentation that came with your computer for information on using these control panels.)
If the system formats are different on your computer from the ones on the computer where the database file was created, the first time you open the file, FileMaker Pro will ask you if you want to use the system’s settings or the file’s settings.
T
T square
Nonprinting, movable horizontal and vertical guidelines to help you position and align objects in Layout mode. An object's left or right boundary, top or bottom boundary, or center "snaps to" the T square lines.
Tab control
A layout object made up of one or more tab panels that allows you to organize fields and other objects within each tab panel's borders.
Tab order
The order in which you move from field to field in a record. In Layout mode, you can define a custom tab order and include buttons, tab controls, and web viewers in the tab order.
Tab panel
A component of a tab control. The tab panel is the area displayed when a tab in a tab control is selected. You can place objects such as lines, fields, buttons, portals, imported graphics, blocks of text, tab controls, and web viewers in tab panels.
Table
A collection of data pertaining to a subject, such as customers or stock prices. A database file contains one or more tables, which consist of fields and records. When you create a new table, a visual representation, or occurrence, of the table appears in the relationships graph. You can specify multiple occurrences (with unique names) of the same table in order to work with complex relationships in the graph.
Table View
Displays multiple records in a tabular format like a spreadsheet. Each record appears in a row, and each field appears in a column. To select this view, click Table View in the layout bar.
If you don't see the layout bar, click the status toolbar control button at the bottom of the document window. You can also click the status toolbar control button in the upper-right corner of the screen (Mac OS).
 
Target file
The file into which you bring data during importing.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The basic communication protocol that is the foundation of the internet.
Template
Or Starter Solution. A pre-designed and formatted FileMaker Pro file, or web page, that you can copy and change for your own use.
Also, a pre-defined website that you can select in the Web Viewer Setup dialog box to help you create a web viewer quickly.
Text baseline
In Layout mode, the dotted guideline that appears at the base of the text in a field or text block. When you move a field or text block, the text baseline extends out horizontally from the object to help you align it with other objects. You can specify in Layout mode that text baselines appear in other database modes by choosing Format menu > Field Borders.
Text expression
Any expression that returns a text result. For example, a text expression can be a constant ("London"), a field reference (Status), or a calculated value (Rightwords(Lastname, 1)).
Timestamp
A field type combining date and time that is compatible with the ODBC requirement for the SQL format [yyyy.mm.dd hh:mm:ss.sss].
Tooltip
A small box that displays text when a user moves the cursor over a layout object. Tooltips display in Browse, Find, and Layout modes.
U
Unicode
A worldwide standard that, in one code page, provides a unique number for every character in human languages, no matter what the platform, software program, or operating system.
Unit of measure
In Browse and Layout modes, you can set the unit of measure to pixels, inches, or centimeters.
Unstored calculation
A calculation field with a result that is only calculated when the value is needed, for example, to browse or print. In most cases, FileMaker Pro makes a field stored when you define it, but you can change the storage type to unstored.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A web address, which consists of a protocol, a host name, and optionally a port, a directory, and a filename. For example, http://www.filemaker.com/ , ftp://12.34.56.78:80/myfiles/, or fmp7://mywebsite.com/sample.fp7.
V
Value list
To save time and ensure accuracy during data entry, define frequently used text, number, date, or time values as a value list. When you enter data, you can choose from the list of defined values.
You can format value lists to display in a drop-down list or pop-up menu, or as checkboxes or option (radio) buttons. The values in a value list can be user-defined or based on the values in a field in the same file or in a different file. You can also define relationships for use with value lists, to access and display particular related values. Another option is to use a value list from another file.
Variable
In a calculation, a symbol or name that represents a value. Use the Set Variable script step to specify the name, value, and repetition of the variable. Names prefixed by $ are local variables available only within the current script. Prefix the name with $$ to make the variable available throughout the current file (global). Local and global variables can have the same name but they are treated as different variables.
View
An arrangement of your data primarily useful for onscreen manipulation. In Browse mode, Find mode, or Preview mode, Form View displays individual records, List View displays records in a list, and Table View displays records in a spreadsheet-like table format.
In FileMaker Pro Instant Web Publishing, views are web pages for working with your database in a web browser.
W, X, Y, Z
Web address
The calculated expression that you enter in the Web Viewer Setup dialog box. A web address is not equivalent to a URL that a web user could enter in a web browser.
Web browser
An application that you can use to view web pages/sites on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Browsers download the web pages onto the viewer's computer.
Web page
An HTML document displayed on the internet or on an intranet.
Web server
A computer that is connected to the internet or an intranet, and has a web server application installed on it. Web server applications deliver web pages and associated files to web browsers.
Website
One or more web pages connected by links and displayed on the internet or on an intranet.
Web user
Someone using a web browser to access a FileMaker Pro database published on the World Wide Web or an intranet.
Web viewer
A layout object that allows you to display information from websites based on data in your database.
World Wide Web
An interlinked collection of web pages residing on web servers, and other documents, menus, and databases, which are available via URLs.
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations)
XSLT (XSL Transformations) is a subset of XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) that is used to transform, or change, the structure of an XML document into a different document format. For example, you can use an XSLT style sheet to transform an XML document into an HTML or TXT document.
XML (Extensible Markup Language)
Instead of being a rigid file format, XML is a language for defining agreed-upon formats that groups can use for exchanging data. Many organizations and businesses are using XML to transfer product information, transactions, inventory, and other business data.
FileMaker Pro can export XML data that can then be used, for example, by spreadsheet applications, data charting applications, and enterprise SQL databases. FileMaker Pro can also import XML data.